⌛ Reflective Analysis: The Importance Of Monitoring IV Line

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Reflective Analysis: The Importance Of Monitoring IV Line

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While the positive science discusses only cause effect relationship, O. Thus, O. Yes, it is not that O. In fact, O. Organizational Behaviour applies humanistic approach towards people working in the organization. It, deals with the thinking and feeling of human beings. It also realizes that people working in the organization can and will actualise these potentials if they are given proper conditions and environment. Environment affects performance or workers working in an organization.

The system approach is one that integrates all the variables, affecting organizational functioning. It seeks to shed light on the whole complex human factor in organisations by identifying causes and effects of that behaviour. Modern organisational behaviour is characterised by the acceptance of a human resource model. It takes a more positive view of human beings. People are accepted as they are and not prejudged using stereotypes. Some of the important characteristics of organisational behaviour are discussed as follows:. Organisational behaviour is a rational thinking, not an emotional feeling about people. The major goals of organisational behaviour are to explain and predict human behavioural in organisations. It is action-oriented and goal-directed.

Organisational behavioural seeks to balanced human and technical values at work. Organisational behaviour integrates behavioural sciences. Many of its core concepts are borrowed from others fields and discipline like social psychology, sociology, and anthropology, etc. Organisational behaviour is both a science and an art, the knowledge about human behaviour in organisations leans towards being science. Modern organisational behaviour is, at once, empirical, interpretative, and critical. It is an interpretative science in the pursuit of knowledge and meaning. The basic purpose is to make meaningful the facts of organisational life. Modern OB is an optic perspective; a process for looking at events, a way of life.

It has empirical facts, and interesting interpretations and powerful paradigms. However it is an inaccurate science to provide specific answers to specific organisational problems. As such very little can be prescribed to consistently predict relationships between a variable on broad scale. The skills in applying the knowledge clearly lean towards being art. Organisational behaviour exists at multiple like levels. Behaviour occurs at the individual, the group, and the organisational systems levels. Behaviour that is attributable to each of these levels can be both identified and isolated but at the same time these three levels interact with each other and OB-being affected by the behaviour of individuals, group level behaviour is affected by the organisational level phenomena and so on.

Organisational behaviour does not exist in vacuum. Organisations are made up of both social and technical components and therefore characterized as social-technical systems. The operational implication of this is that any approach of looking at behaviour must also take into account the technical component of organisation especially such issues as the nature of work and the technology. Organisations at the same time, must take into account the constructs of the working environment, for example, the extent to which the market and the product is changing. OB can be studied at various levels within an organization, and each level has a unique set of roles, responsibilities, and goals.

Individual Level — Deals with the concepts at the individual level. Examples of individual-level concepts are perception, personality, learning, motivation, and attitude. Group Level — Deals with the concepts at the group level. Examples of group-level concepts are team, conflict, leadership, power, and politics. Group-level concepts may include how groups are formed, how to make effective teams, how individually and collectively the group activities can be improved, how to motivate employees, and which type of group would be suitable for a particular assignment. Organizational Level — Deals with the concepts at the organizational level. Examples of organizational-level concepts are change management and organizational culture.

Other topics discussed at organizational level include the concept of organization, different organizational models, and organizational change along with its impact and implementation. The working conditions and stress management are also discussed at the organizational level. There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of-. The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal. The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money.

The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation. The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives. The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm.

Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one. There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models. The first model, autocratic, has its roots in the industrial revolution. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one best model. In addition, the collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.

Emergence and Ethical Perspective :. Organisational behaviour has emerged gradually, right from inception of social organisation. The main factor which promoted the growth of OB was understanding the needs and motives of the people engaged in organisational activities. In this context, one can observe that it has direct link between labour, capital and management.

The fact that needs of the labour force have not been given adequate importance by the management. The discontent at the work places becomes severe due to bad working conditions, occupational diseases and the unhealthy atmosphere. Poor workers had to work just for survival. There was no consideration to improve human relation to create behavioural satisfaction of the working class. The discontent at the work places becomes uncontrollable and resulted in industrial revolution in England in the latter half of the 18th century. This action of the labour force brought them some relief in wages and relief measures in work places. In this regard, Robert Owen, a factory owner in Wales was the first person, who realised the needs of workers in his factory.

He is sometimes referred to as the forerunner of Personnel Management. The actual development of OB started from AD. The period witnessed scientific management of F. He could inspire through his scientific management to a certain extent, workers to motivate their interest in work. Taylor advocated that improved working conditions can increase productivity. His approach made the initial momentum for OB. He believed in technical efficiency so much that this efforts could bring awakening among the workers.

This paved the way for the organisation for well-known conference in New York in During this period Whiting Williams was conducting a research study on workers. During the Second World War and thereafter, this concept of human behaviour and an integrated relationship between management and workers gained much weightage amongst the industrialists and academicians. The contemporary organisational behaviour, by and large, became a full-fledged subject Social Discipline by the end of in the management field. OB has contributed to management through its principles like setting of the goal in organisations, measures for assessing performance like MBO in performance appraisal, etc.

In these fields, the contributions of Peter Drucker and Mc Gregor are worth mentioning. The ethical or human conduct in organisation improved remarkably after the Hawthrone experiment. Dwivedi are of immense value to Human Behaviour Studies. The salient features of ethical perspective are given below:. Subordinates have been given the freedom to control and execute the work with proper accountability. Understanding and providing job security to workers and also recognising them as human beings. Acknowledging that in an organisation the informal group has a great role over the ethical aspects of workers and their performance. To achieve objectives, the leadership has a responsibility to suitably change the behaviour pattern of the workers.

There are several objectives of organisational behaviour and some of them are briefly stated here:. In any organisation the area of behavioural and interactive aspects are much concerned with human behaviours. It is a dynamic and multidisciplinary field that seeks knowledge of behaviour in organisational structure by properly studying individual, group and organisational processes. In any organisation, people frequently work together in groups and teams. The individual and group both influence the organisation and are influenced by the environment in overall society,.

The field of OB is likely to consider a wide variety of approaches. These approaches are based on individual and group oriented,. OB refers to seek knowledge and behavioural patterns in organisation. It develops the process and methods of behavioural approaches. Organisation behaviour is an integrated process by which the role and behaviour of people are incurred. Indian ethical norms emphasised for better work environment with behavioural aspects.

In order to perform interactive and mutual tasks and to develop some behavioural aspects, certain key elements or constitutes are to be included. These element may develop the interactive aspects for the well-being of persons. As such, the key elements of organisational behaviour are stated here:. Element 1. People :. People makes the interactive and behavioural platform in any organisation and people consists in the form of individuals and group.

The role and behaviour of people identifies, recognise and develop the interactive relations towards behavioural attitudes in society. Element 2. Structure :. The formal relationship of people makes the structural design in organisation. The managerial and organisational levels are decorated by specific job as well as level to be incurred in structural design. The rights and responsibilities are also being determined in a particular group or structure.

Element 3. Technology :. The technology represent all the resources with which people work and affects the task that they perform. The role and utilisation of technology has a significant influence on the performance of people and thereby to achieve perfections in the betterment of interactive behaviour. Element 4. Interactive Behaviour :. In any organisation, the interactive relations and behaviour between individual and groups as well as the relations by formal and informal ways also have an important role to make perspectives in organisational behaviour.

The mutual behaviour among people may be developed by the identification, existence and interactive role in any organisation and society. Element 5. Environment :. All organisations operates within internal and external environment. The existence, structural design, work performance, mutual relations and behavioural patterns are duly influenced by the internal and external environmental factors. Organisational Behaviour provides a way for understanding human behaviour in the organisation. Organisational Behaviour can be understood at the individual level, interpersonal level, group level and intergroup level.

It provides for analysing why and how an individual behaves in a particular way. Organisational Behaviour integrates these factors to provide simplicity in understanding human behaviour. Interpersonal interaction is normally in peer relationship which represents mans most natural attempt at socialisation. Two person relationship is inevitable in the organization. Analysis of-. Research in group dynamics has contributed vitally to organisational behaviour and shows how a group behaves in its:.

Understanding group relationships is very important for organisational morale and productivity. The organisation is made up of many groups that develop a complex of relationships to build its process and substance. Intergroup relationship may be in the form of cooperation or competition. Organisational Behaviour helps in understanding and achieving cooperative group relationships through:.

After understanding the mechanism of human behaviour, managers are required to control and direct the behaviour so that it conforms to standards required for achieving organisational objectives. Organisational Behaviour helps managers in the following areas:. Organisational Behaviour can be controlled and directed by the use of power and sanctions which are formally prescribed by the organisation.

Power is referred to as capacity of an individual to take certain action and may be utilised in many ways. Organisational Behaviour explains how various means of power and sanction can be utilised so that both organisational and individual objectives are achieved simultaneously. Organisational climate refers to the total organisational situations affecting human behaviour. Organisations, as dynamic entities, are characterised by pervasive change. Managers have to face dual problems- Identifying need for change and then implementing the changes without adversely affecting the need for satisfaction of organisational people. Applying the knowledge of organisational behaviour in management is to make management more purposeful and practical.

Management is managing the activities of people. When dealing with an individual, it is of vital importance to understand the individual and his behaviour. Knowledge of OB for a manager in modern organisation enables him to be more effective. Therefore, the relation between management and OB should be understood by every manager. Organisational behaviour is based mainly on two main principles:. Every individual is different from the other in respect of intelligence, habit, nature, attitude, etc. This individual difference is the outcome of his psychological aspects. Organisational behaviour is a part of psychology.

An individual with psychological differences will show the same in his behavioural pattern in an organisation. Management Manager has to behave differently with different persons. This knowledge is provided to management by the study of OB. An individual is a whole person with physical and psychological aspects. Therefore, we cannot deal with a person by part. For example, an employee working in an organisation has a lot of personal problems worrying him. It is not possible for him to perform the work by keeping away these problems at home and work efficiently with his physical capability alone.

No one can separate the physical and psychological aspects and deal with the individual. Hence, the knowledge of OB and management has to be integrated and the problem of an individual probed to find out remedial action to solve it considering the individual as a whole person. Solving the problem will become quite easy, if the relation between OB and management is well-understood by the manager. This is a reaction in an individual due to some needs and wants, which he has to satisfy. These may be financial or non-financial. This caused behaviour has to be regulated by proper motivation. Hence the management and OB have to work together to understand the exact nature of the need of an individual to be satisfied and the desired incentive to be provided to the individual so as to help satisfy his needs.

People in an organisation have some strong beliefs and possess certain value systems of their own. Let it be a manager or a worker; each possesses the dignity of his position and role in the organisation. An individual, who possesses a strong value system may not compromise it simply, as such he has to be given the deserving value and recognition. Related approach of OB and management will be of great help in such a situation. Organisational activities are controlled by social and psychological norms. People have psychological needs and motives, at the same time, they are bound to shoulder social responsibility, according to their role in the organisation.

One can find the above two types of norms operating. Due to proper interaction of these norms, organisational activities become cordial and efficient. These always bring cooperation and confidence among people. It is the source of sound organisational behaviour. People and organisation are interdependent like OB and management. People need organisation for livelihood on the other hand, the organisation needs people for achieving its goals.

So the relation between OB and management can bring all round progress, if both have amiable relationship between them. OB is the study of individuals, groups and organisations for better understanding and production of desired results. The factors which affect the individuals, groups and organisations affect the organisational behaviour also. Along with that, the technology which is adopted in organisations and the environment surrounding, the organisation also affects the OB. People are valuable resources of every organisation. Individual is the most important component of OB. In fact, the study of OB revolves around individual, intrapersonal forces, study of interpersonal forces and study of an individual in an organisational setting.

Every individual differs from other, everyone behaves differently; however, those who behave same may be placed in one category and study can be made for each category so as to describe, understand, predict and control their behaviour. The factors which affect the individual also affect OB. For example, personality, attitude, learning, perception, values, ethics, norms, motivation, culture, thought process, family background, etc.

An organisation is a group of two or more persons, who collectively work for attainment of set objectives on a continuous basis. An individual behaves differently when he is in group, instead of that when he is alone. Even the behaviour is different when he is in different groups e. Under the study of OB, efforts are made to study conduct of people, when they are in a group. Therefore, group factors such as communication, group processes, group decision making, comparative values, cross cultural attitudes, etc. Organisational structure or design depends on division of work, departmentalisation, hierarchy and coordination. These factors vary in different organisations. Moreover, power relationships, extent of decentralisation, reporting methods and work procedures also differ in organisations.

These factors affect the individual and the OB. It becomes easier to get desired behaviour from employees when organisational design happens to be effective. If employees like the organisational structure, they are motivated and work happily in the organisation and vice-versa. The most important thing to achieve organisational goals is performance of assigned jobs by the employees. If the employees perform their jobs in time, then only organisational goals can be achieved. The work is performed with the help of technology i. If the technology and equipment matches the choice of employees, they will be satisfied and tasks will be performed efficiently on time and vice versa. The surroundings of a business in which it operates is called business environment.

Business environment is composed of external and internal factors. External environment can also be classified as micro environment which are controllable by firm and vary from industry to industry and macro environment which affects the whole economy. Various environmental factors which affect organisation includes social, technological, political, economical and customers, suppliers, competitors, etc.

Behaviour of employees is affected by these factors. Therefore, in OB, the effect of these factors on behaviour of people is also studied. Organisations, for their success, give importance for the development of human factor. Researches reveal that human factor can do anything for the success or failure of an organisation. Consider our public sector undertakings PSUs.

Government of India established hundreds of business houses in manufacturing and service sectors. But after many years of operation majority of the undertakings turned sick. It is mainly due to mismanagement. Government provided funds to operate. But the human factor at work in these organisations did not manage the units as per set methods and procedure. Because of this, economy could not grow at the expected rate. The experience derived out of the growth path of PSUs says that human factor is critical in organisations. Graduates rolled out from universities, will have specialised in their field of study. But, they learn very little during academic pursuits on interpersonal and intrapersonal skills which are very essential for their success in any walk of life and for the organisations they work.

Practical aspects of human behaviour at work are not taught. Only the behavioural aspects observed and retained in formative stages of the individual plays a key role in workplaces in which the person works in future. Therefore, importance is given for behaviour modeling in workplaces. Human Resources Development HRD in organisations have occupied the prime place compared to finance and other functional departments. The main goal is to coordinate human and non-human factors for the success of the organisation.

As human factors operates and controls non-human factor, further objective is to tune and fine-tune the human behaviour to suit the requirements of the organisation. Use our service to crack that near-impossible assignment. We complete assignments from scratch to provide you with plagiarism free papers. Our professional team of writers ensures top-quality custom essay writing services. We strive to ensure that every paper is crafted with getting you the highest grade in mind.

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