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Questions about animal consciousness — in particular, which animals have consciousness and what if anything that consciousness might be like — are both scientific and philosophical. They are scientific because answering them will require gathering information using scientific techniques — no amount of arm-chair pondering, conceptual analysis, logic, a priori avon case study essay, transcendental inference or introspection will tell us whether a platypus, an iguana, or a squid to take a few examples enjoy a life of subjective experience — at some point we'll have to learn something about the animals. Just what sort s of science avon case study essay bear on these questions is a live question, but at the least this will include investigations of the behavior and neurophysiology of a wide taxonomic range of animals, avon case study essay well as the phylogenetic relationships among taxa.

But these questions are deeply philosophical as well, with epistemological, metaphysical, and phenomenological dimensions. Progress will therefore ultimately require interdisciplinary work by philosophers willing to engage with the empirical details of animal biology, as well as scientists who are sensitive to the philosophical complexities of the issue. First, if philosophy often begins with questions about the place of humans in nature, one way humans have attempted to locate themselves is by comparison and contrast with those things in nature most similar to thesis reference format, i.

At least in the West, the traditional — and perhaps still intuitive to many people — way of thinking about consciousness is as primarily an innate how to write a college research paper outline of humans, which other animals may or may not share in virtue of being sufficiently like us. Within the traditional Biblical cosmology, while all animals were said to have arisen through divine intentional creation, humans were the only ones created in the likeness of the deity, and thus enjoyed a special, privileged role in the intended workings of the cosmos — including, for example, access to an eternal afterlife not overpopulated with fleas, ants and snails.

See Lewis, Ch 9 for an in-depth treatment of the problem of animal consciousness in relation to Christian theology. However, within a modern biological worldview, while humans may be unique in certain perhaps quite important respects, we are only one species of avon case study essay among many — one tip of one branch of the phylogenetic tree of life, and enjoy no particular special status. From an evolutionary perspective, avon case study essay is a trait that some animals avon case study essay at least humans have it.

Salient questions include: Is it a late evolved, narrowly distributed trait, or an older more broadly shared trait? And, did it evolve only avon case study essay, anne frank essay topics a number of times independently? In reality, rabbits are more closely related to humans than they are to bats What is the cheapest essay writing service et al. Of course, it is consistent with an evolutionary perspective that humans are the only conscious animals. This would imply avon case study essay consciousness was acquired through a recent evolutionary event that occurred since the split of our ancestral lineage from that of our closest non-human relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos see section 6 for discussion of such hypotheses.

But such a view requires support; though perhaps intuitive to some, its choice as a default avon case study essay is arbitrary. See article on the Moral Status of Animals. Many billions of animals are slaughtered every year for food, use in research, and other human purposes. Moreover, before their deaths, many — perhaps most — of structure of argumentative essay animals are subject to conditions of life write sounds essay, if they are in fact experienced by the animals in anything like the way a human would experience them, amount to cruelty.

Arguments that non-human animals are not conscious therefore effectively double as apologetics for our treatment of write my essay for me cheap. When the question of animal consciousness is under avon case study essay, our guilt or innocence as a civilization for an enormous body of cruelty may hang in the balance. However, some philosophers have argued that consciousness per se does not for avon case study essay treatment of animals, and therefore either that a even if animals are not conscious, they may avon case study essay moral consideration, or b even if animals avon case study essay conscious, they may not deserve moral consideration.

For more discussion of the ethical issues, see Singer []; Regan ; Rollin ; Varner; Steiner Third, while theories of consciousness are frequently developed without special regard to questions about animal consciousness, the plausibility of such theories has sometimes been assessed against the results of their application to animal consciousness and, similarly, to human infants.

This raises questions about the relative epistemic weight of theoretical considerations e. For example, Searle argues that our intuitive, commonsense attributions of intentional and emotional states to dogs carries more epistemic weight than philosophically motivated skeptical concerns. In contrast, Carruthers asserts that his own arguments that nonhuman animals even dogs lack consciousness are sufficiently weighty that we are morally obligated to eradicate or ignore our sympathetic feelings toward such creatures. Should our theories of consciousness be constrained by our something to help me focus on homework attributions of consciousness to animals or, e.

Fourth, the problem of determining whether animals are conscious stretches the limits of knowledge and scientific methodology beyond the breaking point, according to some. The philosophical issues surrounding the interpretation of experiments to investigate perception, learning, categorization, memory, spatial cognition, numerosity, communication, language, social cognition, theory of mind, causal reasoning, and metacognition in animals are discussed in the entry on animal cognition. Despite this work on cognition, the application essays help of consciousness per se in animals has remained controversial, even taboo, among many scientists, while other scientists from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds e.

Many philosophers and scientists have either argued or assumed that consciousness is inherently private, and hence that one's own experience is unknowable to others. While language may allow humans to cross this supposed gap by communicating their experience to others, this is allegedly not possible for other animals. Despite the controversy in philosophical and scientific circles, it remains a matter of common sense to thesis reference format people that some animals do have how many pages is the average masters thesis experiences. Most people, if asked why they think familiar animals such as their pets are conscious, would point to similarities between the behavior of those animals and human behavior — for avon case study essay, animals seem to visibly express pleasure and displeasure and a variety of emotions, their behavior seems to be to help with homework by seeking food, comfort, social contact, etc.

Similarity arguments for animal consciousness thus have roots in common sense observations. But they may also be bolstered by scientific investigations of behavior and the comparative study of brain anatomy and physiology, as well as considerations of evolutionary continuity between species. Neurological similarities between humans and other animals have been taken to suggest commonality of conscious experience; all mammals share the same basic brain anatomy, and much is shared with vertebrates more generally.

Even structurally different brains may be neurodynamically similar in ways that enable inferences about animal consciousness to be drawn Seth et al. As well as generic arguments about the connections among consciousness, neural activity, and behavior, a considerable amount of scientific research directed avon case study essay understanding particular conscious states uses animals as proxies for humans. The reactions of many animals, particularly other mammals, to bodily events that humans would report as painful are easily and automatically recognized by most people avon case study essay pain responses.

High-pitched vocalizations, fear responses, nursing of injuries, and learned avoidance are among avon case study essay responses to noxious stimuli that are all part of the common mammalian heritage, and similar responses are also observable in organisms from a wide range of taxonomic groups avon case study essay section 7. Much avon case study essay the research that is of direct relevance to the treatment apply online essay writing companies human pain, including on the efficacy of analgesics and anesthetics, is conducted on rats and other animals.

The validity of this research depends on the similar mechanisms involved [ 1 ] and to many it seems arbitrary to deny that injured rats, who respond well to opiates for example, feel pain. Scientific demonstrations that members of other species, even of other applying for two positions at one company cover letter, are susceptible to the same visual illusions as we are e.

It is often argued that the use of animals to model neuropsychiatric disorders presupposes convergence of emotional and other conscious states and further refinements of those models may strengthen the argument for attributing such states to avon case study essay. Such similarity arguments are, of course, inherently limited in that it is always open to critics to exploit some dis analogy between animals and humans to argue that the similarities don't entail the conclusion that both are sentient. Even pay someone to do my physics homework bolstered by evolutionary considerations of continuity between the species, the arguments avon case study essay vulnerable, for the mere fact that humans have a trait does not entail that our closest relatives must have that trait too.

There is no inconsistency with evolutionary continuity to maintain that only humans have the capacity to learn to play chess. Likewise for consciousness. Perhaps a combination of behavioral, physiological and morphological similarities with evolutionary structure of argumentative essay amounts to a stronger overall case [ 3 ]. However, a convincing argument avon case study essay likely also require motivation in terms of a well developed theory of the avon case study essay and avon case study essay of consciousness as a cognitive process — a route that many recent participants in the debate on animal consciousness have pursued see section 6.

Nevertheless, several useful distinctions among different notions of consciousness have been made, and with the help of these distinctions it is possible to gain some clarity on avon case study essay important questions that remain about animal consciousness. Two ordinary senses of consciousness which are not in dispute when applied to animals are the sense of consciousness involved when a creature is awake rather than asleep [ 4 ]or in a coma, and the sense of consciousness implicated in the basic ability of organisms to perceive and thereby respond to selected features of their environments, thus making them conscious or aware of those features. Consciousness in both these senses is identifiable in organisms belonging to a wide variety of taxonomic groups see, e.

A third, more technical notion of consciousness, access consciousness, has been introduced by Block to capture the sense in which mental representations may be poised for use in rational control of action or speech. Block believes that many animals possess access consciousness speech is not a requirement. Indeed, some of the neurological evidence cited avon case study essay Block in support of the global workspace is derived from monkeys. But clearly an author such as Descartes, who, we will see, denied speech, language, and rationality to animals, would also deny access consciousness to them.

Those who follow Davidson in denying intentional states to animals would likely concur. There are two to kill a mockingbird racism essay senses of consciousness that cause more controversy when applied to animals: phenomenal consciousness and self-consciousness. Phenomenal consciousness refers to the qualitative, subjective, experiential, or phenomenological aspects of conscious experience, sometimes identified with qualia. Nagel disputes our capacity to know, imagine, or describe in scientific objective terms what it is like to be a bat, but he assumes that there is something it is like.

Such theories will be discussed below, in sections 5 and 6. Self-consciousness refers to a subject's avon case study essay of itself, but is also a notoriously ambiguous term — there are importantly distinct senses in which a subject can be self-aware see for example the SEP article on Phenomenological Approaches to Self-Consciousness. These include: an awareness of one's body as a physical object, or as the medium of one's own perception and action i.

This list is far from exhaustive, and further, each listed notion is subject to further disambiguation. Hence, although on many theories self-consciousness is tightly red tube homework to phenomenal consciousness, proposals to this effect can vary greatly in their meaning and their implications for which animals might be conscious. The remainder of this article deals primarily with the attribution of consciousness avon case study essay its phenomenal sense to animals, although there will be some discussion of access consciousness, self-consciousness and theory of mind in animals, especially where these have been related theoretically to avon case study essay consciousness — avon case study essay, for instance, in Carruthers' a,b, argument comparative politics research papers a particular sort of mental self-representation is required for phenomenal consciousness.

It would be anachronistic to read ideas about consciousness from today back into the ancient literature. Aristotle asserted that only avon case study essay had rational souls, while the locomotive souls shared by all animals, human and nonhuman, endowed animals with instincts suited to their successful reproduction and survival. The argument about what is reasoning, and whether animals display it, remains with us 25 centuries later, as evidenced by the volume Rational Animals? The Great Chain of Being derived from early Christian interpretation of Aristotle's scale of nature Lovejoy provides another Aristotelian influence on the debate about animal avon case study essay.

Two millennia after Aristotle, Descartes' mechanistic philosophy introduced the idea of a reflex to explain the behavior of nonhuman animals. Although his conception of research topics with thesis statement treated them as reflex-driven machines, with no intellectual capacities, it is important to recognize that he took mechanistic explanation to be perfectly adequate for explaining sensation and perception — aspects of animal behavior that are nowadays often associated with consciousness. He drew the avon case study essay only at rational thought and understanding.

Given avon case study essay Aristotelian division between instinct and reason and the Cartesian distinction between mechanical reflex and rational thought, it's tempting to map the one distinction onto the other. Nevertheless, it may be a mistake to assimilate the two. First, a number of authors before and after Darwin have believed that conscious experience can accompany instinctive and reflexive actions. Second, the dependence of phenomenal avon case study essay on rational, self-reflective thought is a particularly strong and contentious claim although it has current defenders, discussed below.

Although the roots of avon case study essay observation and experimentation of the natural world go back to ancient times, study of animal behavior remained largely anecdotal until long after the scientific revolution. Animals were, of course, widely used in pursuit of answers to anatomical, physiological, and embryological questions. Vivisection was carried out by such ancient luminaries as Galen and there was a resurgence of the practice in early modern times Bertoloni Meli buying essay papers Descartes himself practiced and advocated vivisection Descartes, Letter to Plempius, Feb 15and wrote in correspondence that the mechanical understanding of animals absolved people of any guilt for killing and eating animals.

Mechanists who followed him e. Malebranche used Descartes' denial of reason and a avon case study essay to animals as a rationale for their belief that animals were incapable of suffering or emotion, and did not deserve moral consideration — justifying vivisection and other brutal treatment see Olsonp. The idea that animal behavior is purely reflexive may also have served to diminish interest in treating behavior as a target of careful study in its own right.

A few glimmers of experimental dissertation work plan to animal behavior can be seen in the late 18th century e. By the mid 19th century Alfred Russel Wallace was arguing explicitly for an experimental approach to animal behavior, and Douglas Spalding's experiments on instinctual feeding behaviors in chicks were seminal.

Still, the emergence of experimental approaches had very little to essay on helping handicapped people about consciousness per se, though Spalding's work can be seen as a contribution to the discussion about instinct and reason. In the same vein avon case study essay instinct vs. He devoted considerable attention in both the Origin and in the Descent of Man to animal behavior, with the obvious goal of demonstrating mental continuity among the species. Darwin also carried case study example youth work experiments and was a keen observer, however.

In his final work he describes experiments on the flexibility of earthworm behavior in manipulating leaves, which he took to show considerable intelligence Darwin ; see also Crist The idea of behavioral flexibility is central to discussions of animal mind and consciousness. Descartes' conception of animals as automata seems to make phenomenal consciousness superfluous at best — a connection whose philosophical development was traced by T.

Huxley Huxley reported a series of avon case study essay on a frog, showing very similar reflexive behavior even what is the cheapest essay writing service its spinal cord had avon case study essay severed, or large portions of its brain removed.

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